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Conservation by Re-use

Helping churches acquire surplus and/or redundant bells to be hung for

English-style full-circle bell-ringing.

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Sound of Bells – References


1 The author is aware that some mini-rings have not been tuned with respect to the Nominal but to another partial, e.g. the Hum. He suspects that the human ear is detecting a strike note which is not dependent on the Nominal frequency.


1 On Bell Tones, Nash's Pall Mall Magazine 7:183-194 (1895). A. B. Simpson

2 Group Theory and The Bell, Journal of Sound and Vibration (1973) 31:411-418. R. Perrin, T Charnley.

3 Normal Modes of the Modern English Church Bell, Journal of Sound and Vibration (1983) 90(1),29-49. R. Perrin, T Charnley, J. DePont.

4 Chladni's Law and the Modern English Church Bell, Journal of Sound and Vibration (1985) 102(1),11-19. R. Perrin, T Charnley, H. Banu & T.D. Rossing.

5 A Comparative Study of the Normal Modes of Various Modern Bells, Journal of Sound and Vibration (1987) 117(3),411-420. R. Perrin, T Charnley.

6 Acoustical Measurements on Church Bells and Carillons, The Hague 1949. E. W. Van Heuven.

7 Acoustical Investigation of the influence of the material on the Sound of Bells, Acustica 29:1-14 (1973), C. R. Schad & H. Warlimont.

8 Architectural Acoustics, Bruel & Kjaer, K. B. Ginn

9 Francois and Pieter Hemony,  17th Century Dutch Bell-founders.

10 Bells & BellFounding, A Practical Treatise upon Church Bells by X-Y-Z. Bristol 1879.

11 E. F. F. Chladni, Die Akustik, 1830.

12 A Rudimentary treatise on Clocks, Watches and Bells with a full account of the Westminster Clock and Bells. London 1860. E. B. Denison

13 The Strike Note of Bells, Netherlands Acoustic Society Pub. No. 7, 1965 pages 8-19. J. F. Schouten & J. 't Hart.

14 John William Taylor I, Bellfounder, John Taylor Bellfounders Ltd, Loughborough

15 For information about  Waveanal  please email Bill Hibbert at or look at Bill’s web site for more information about tonal analysis of bells. A worthwhile visit for those who would like to know more!